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Cancer [SCOPE NOTE: Malignant tumor or neoplasm, a sarcoma or carcinoma; includes leukemia, Hodgkins' Disease, and epithelioma]
Related Terms: Chemotherapy, Facial disfigurement
Use for: Tumor

Captioning [SCOPE NOTE: Providing written text of spoken dialog in audiovisual displays]
Related Terms: Communication devices, Television
Use for: Subtitles

Cardiac disorders [SCOPE NOTE: Disorders or diseases pertaining to the heart]
Broader Terms: Chronic illness
Related Terms: Cardiopulmonary function, Cardiovascular function
Use for: Coronary, Heart disorders

Cardiopulmonary function [SCOPE NOTE: Functions of heart and lungs]
Related Terms: Cardiac disorders, Emphysema, Pulmonary function, Respiratory disease

Cardiovascular function [SCOPE NOTE: Functions of heart and blood vessels]
Related Terms: Cardiac disorders, Circulatory system, Stroke
Use for: Circulatory diseases

Careers [SCOPE NOTE: For persons with disabilities only! Includes professions for which one trains, and which are undertaken as permanent callings; also includes career planning; for careers for able-bodied persons, use PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS]
Related Terms: Education, Employment, Job descriptions, Job training techniques, Manpower, Placement, Professional occupations, Professional training, Projects with industry, Training programs, Vocational evaluation, Vocational training
Use for: Occupational information

Caregivers [SCOPE NOTE: Non-professionals, often family members, who assist a person with an illness or disability; also, those who atted to a child or dependent adult. For professional caregivers, such as doctors, therapists,nurses, etc., use the appropriate professional terms.]
Related Terms: Child care, Children, Family life, Home care, Older adults, Parents, Siblings, Spouses
Use for: Caregiving, Family caregivers, Sandwich generation

Use: Caregivers, Home care

Carpal tunnel syndrome [SCOPE NOTE: Pressure on the median nerve causing soreness, tenderness, and weakness of the wrist; term added June 1989]
Broader Terms: Repetitive strain injuries
Related Terms: Joints

Case closure
Use: Closure

Case flow
Use: Caseload management

Case management
Narrower terms: Caseload management

Case recording
Use: Client records

Case reviews [SCOPE NOTE: Used to describe one particular set of documents; in general, CASE STUDIES is used]
Related Terms: Case studies, Client records

Case studies [SCOPE NOTE: Analysis of the origin of individual and family problems, and methods used in counseling; individualized counseling methods which utilize cumulative records or other data such as medical, social, psychological, vocational data; histories which help to explain an individual, family, or group]
Broader Terms: Counseling techniques
Related Terms: Case reviews, Client characteristics
Use for: Casework

Caseload management [SCOPE NOTE: Specifically related to ration of clients to counselor; includes caseload characteristics]
Broader Terms: Case management
Related Terms: Closure, Counseling, Time management
Use for: Case flow, Casework, Clinical management

Use: Case studies, Caseload management, Closure

Catalogs [SCOPE NOTE: Itemized descriptive lists]
Related Terms: Information resources

Use: Low vision

Catheterization [SCOPE NOTE: Pertains to use of a catheter to withdraw urine through a hollow tube]
Related Terms: Bladder function, Urinary disorders

Cause of illness
Use: Etiology

Use: Physiology

Census [SCOPE NOTE: Periodic enumeration of a population]
Related Terms: Demographics, National surveys, Questionnaires, Survey forms, Surveys

Central nervous system
Use: Nervous system

Cerebral palsy [SCOPE NOTE: Congenital disease, usually non-progressive and dating from infancy or early childhood, characterized by a major disorder of motor function]
Broader Terms: Congenital disorders, Developmental disabilities, Disabilities, Muscular impairments, Neurological disorders
Related Terms: Brain damage, Spasticity

Cerebrovascular accident
Use: Stroke

Cerebrovascular disease
Use: Stroke

Certification [SCOPE NOTE: Includes certification or licensing of professionals; for certification of facilities use, ACCREDITATION]
Related Terms: Accreditation, Counselors, Health personnel, Medical personnel, Personnel, Standards, Teachers
Use for: Licensing

Change agents
Use: Research utilization

Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome
Use: Neuromuscular disorders

Chat rooms
Use: Internet

Use: Questionnaires, Survey forms, Tests

Chemotherapy [SCOPE NOTE: Use of chemical agents in the treatment or control of diseases such as cancer]
Broader Terms: Medical treatment, Therapy
Related Terms: Biochemistry, Cancer, Drugs

Child abuse [SCOPE NOTE: Includes child neglect, physical and psychological abuse, and battered children]
Broader Terms: Abuse
Related Terms: Children, Family life, Infants, Parents, Violence, Youth
Use for: Domestic violence

Child care [SCOPE NOTE: Supervision and responsibility for a child over a period of time, including feeding, clothing, and other aspects of daily care. Excludes DAY CARE, which is used for the care of people with disabilities away from home.]
Related Terms: Caregivers, Children, Day care, Family life, Homemakers, Infants, Parents, Respite care

Child development [SCOPE NOTE: Growth in mental and social skills in children aged 0-13]
Broader Terms: Children
Related Terms: Cognition, Communication skills, Developmental disabilities, Intelligence, Interpersonal relations, Language learning, Learning, Psychosocial factors

Children [SCOPE NOTE: Ages 2 to 13 years]
Narrower terms: Child development, Gifted children
Related Terms: Adoption, Age factors, Caregivers, Child abuse, Child care, Family life, Fetuses, Infants, Juvenile delinquency, Marriage, Parents, Siblings, Students, Toys, Youth
Use for: Pediatrics

Chiropractic treatments
Use: Alternative medicine

Chronic chorea
Use: Huntington disease

Chronic fatigue syndrome [SCOPE NOTE: Disease characterized by debilitating fatigue and neuromuscular and neuropsychological symptoms, term added December 1994]
Broader Terms: Chronic illness
Use for: Epstein-Barr

Chronic illness [SCOPE NOTE: Diseases of slow progression and long duration]
Narrower terms: Allergies, Arthritis, Asthma, COPD, Cardiac disorders, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Emphysema, Tuberculosis
Related Terms: Long term care, Nursing homes, Pain, Respiratory disease, Terminal illness

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic pain
Use: Pain

Use: Religion

Use: Circulatory system

Circulatory diseases
Use: Cardiovascular function, Circulatory system

Circulatory system [SCOPE NOTE: System which moves blood through the vessels of the body via the pumping action of the heart]
Related Terms: Cardiovascular function
Use for: Circulation, Circulatory diseases

Civic participation [SCOPE NOTE: Involvement with the activities and responsibilities of citizenship; CIRRIE term added April 2000]

Civil rights
Use: Advocacy

Civil service
Use: Federal agencies, Regional agencies

Classification systems [SCOPE NOTE: Systems for arrangement according to class or category; includes taxonomy, typology, or nomenclature]
Narrower terms: ICF
Broader Terms: Information resources
Related Terms: Information systems
Use for: Codes, Scales

Use: Information resources, Information systems, Libraries

Cleft palate [SCOPE NOTE: Congenital partial or complete fissure of the roof of the mouth; use for cleft lip]
Broader Terms: Congenital disorders, Facial disfigurement
Related Terms: Speech impairments

Use: Religion

Client assistance programs [SCOPE NOTE: Information and referral services to vocational rehabilitation clients and applicants; term added June 1989]
Broader Terms: Programs
Related Terms: Information referral, Municipal/regional agencies, Technology assistance programs, Vocational rehabilitation

Client characteristics [SCOPE NOTE: Describes the social, psychological, vocational, educational, or physical problems of the individuals a facility proposes to serve; can include age, sex, occupation, medical descriptions; may be statistical or survey in nature]
Related Terms: Case studies, Client records, Clients, Demographics
Use for: Patient characteristics

Client counselor relations [SCOPE NOTE: The behaviors and attitudes that characterize the relationship between client and counselor, and that may affect client satisfaction and outcomes.]
Narrower terms: Clients, Counseling, Counselors
Related Terms: Client satisfaction, Counseling effectiveness

Client evaluation
Use: Functional evaluation, Medical evaluation, Psychiatric evaluation, Psychological evaluation, Vocational evaluation

Client records
Related Terms: Case reviews, Client characteristics, Clients
Use for: Case recording, Medical records, Patient records, Recordkeeping

Client satisfaction [SCOPE NOTE: Client's determination of fulfillment or attainment of vocational rehabilitation, employment, or personal goals; includes client's evaluation of services, facilities, or devices]
Related Terms: Client counselor relations, Clients, Counseling effectiveness, Evaluation, Goal setting

Client training
Use: Therapeutic training

Clients [SCOPE NOTE: Persons who use professional services or advice of another; persons served by utilizing services of a state, federal, or other agency]
Broader Terms: Client counselor relations
Related Terms: Client characteristics, Client records, Client satisfaction, Closure, Consumers, Institutionalization, Therapeutic training
Use for: Patients, Recipients

Clinical management
Use: Caseload management

Clinical psychology [SCOPE NOTE: Branch of psychology devoted to the study, diagnosis, and treatment of mental and behavior disorders; frequently clinical psychologists work in a medical setting with psychiatrists and other physicians, and usually have a Ph.D. and additional training in a clinical setting]
Broader Terms: Psychology
Related Terms: Counseling, Counseling psychology, Psychiatry

Clinical trials
Use: Medical research

Clinics [SCOPE NOTE: Facilities for diagnosis and treatment of outpatients]
Broader Terms: Facilities
Related Terms: Hospitals, Mobile facilities
Use for: Low vision clinics, Outpatients

Closed head injuries
Use: Brain injuries

Closure [SCOPE NOTE: Used by state vocational rehabilitation agencies to indicate the termination of basic rehabilitation or placement services to a client]
Related Terms: Caseload management, Clients, Counseling, Outcome, Placement
Use for: Case closure, Casework

Clothing [SCOPE NOTE: Wearing apparel; includes hats, shoes, design of clothing, adaptation of clothing to meet the needs of disabled individuals]
Related Terms: Daily living

Use: Dependency, Substance abuse

Use: Substance abuse

Use: Classification systems, Facilities standards, Standards

Cognition [SCOPE NOTE: General term; includes the psychological processes by which people gain knowledge, intellectual growth, and abstract reasoning]
Related Terms: Child development, Intelligence, Learning, Perception, Psychology
Use for: Behavioral treatment, Cognitive rehabilitation, Cognitive therapy

Cognitive rehabilitation
Use: Cognition

Cognitive therapy
Use: Cognition

College students
Use: Students, Universities

Use: Universities

Use: Ostomy

Coma [SCOPE NOTE: A state of acute brain failure resulting in unconsciousness for varying lengths of time, term added December 1994]
Related Terms: Brain injuries

Communication [SCOPE NOTE: Process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior; includes professionals using communication interaction skills]
Narrower terms: Speech, Telecommunications
Related Terms: Audiology, Communication devices, Communication skills, Language, Sign language

Communication devices [SCOPE NOTE: Devices that enhance communication for persons with disabilities; includes amplifiers, speech aids, communication boards, special signaling devices, mouth wands, head wands, page turners; use more specific term when possible]
Narrower terms: Hearing aids, TDD, Telephones
Broader Terms: Assistive technology, Devices
Related Terms: Blind, Braille, Captioning, Communication, Daily living, Deaf, Deaf blind, Devices design, Hearing impairments, Mobility aids, Sensory aids, Typewriting, Visual impairments
Use for: Alternative communication, Augmentative and alternative communication

Communication disorders
Use: Hearing impairments, Language disorders, Speech impairments

Communication skills [SCOPE NOTE: Includes lip reading, fingerspelling, sign language; for interpersonal skills use, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS]
Related Terms: Audiology, Child development, Communication, Deaf, Deaf blind, Hearing impairments, Interpreters, Interpreting, Sign language, Speech impairments, Speech therapy
Use for: Fingerspelling, Lip reading

Community Based Rehabilitation [SCOPE NOTE: Rehabilitation services provided at home or accessed in local clinics or outpatient facilities not typically located within a hospital; CIRRIE term added April 2000]

Community centers [SCOPE NOTE: Centers located in a community as opposed to institutional setting; includes activities centers and adult development centers; can refer to activities of specific centers]
Broader Terms: Facilities
Related Terms: Community resources, Group homes, Halfway houses

Community integration
Use: Inclusion

Community living [SCOPE NOTE: Living in a community setting as opposed to living in an institution; includes transitional living and learning to function in a community]
Related Terms: Daily living, Day care, Facilities, Group homes, Halfway houses, Housing, Independent living, Intellectual disabilities, Life care planning, Living facilities, Residential living
Use for: Residential programs

Community resources [SCOPE NOTE: Broad category which includes community programs, services, and alternatives; also includes local and municipal agencies and government programs; includes name and address listings of people, places, and things; see also more specific resources]
Narrower terms: Transportation
Related Terms: Community centers, Federal agencies, Interagency relations, Mobile facilities, Municipal/regional agencies, Organizations, Social services
Use for: Community services, Community supports, Natural supports

Community services
Use: Community resources

Community supports
Use: Community resources

Competitive employment [SCOPE NOTE: Employment of persons with disabilities in a competitive situation; term added June 1989]
Broader Terms: Employment
Related Terms: Private sector employment, Supported employment

Compliance with treatment
Use: Patient education

Computer access
Use: Computers

Computer applications [SCOPE NOTE: How a computer is used; end results of computer use]
Related Terms: Computers, Decision support systems, Environmental control systems, Information systems, Programmed instruction, Robotics, Systems analysis
Use for: Multimedia

Computer assisted instruction
Use: Programmed instruction

Computers [SCOPE NOTE: Includes computer programmers, computers, programming, and software]
Narrower terms: Internet
Related Terms: Assistive technology, Computer applications, Electronics, Robotics, Telecommunications
Use for: Computer access

Use: Behavior modification

Conference proceedings
Use: Conferences

Conferences [SCOPE NOTE: Includes papers prepared for, and information about, conferences, conference planning, or summaries of conferences]
Related Terms: Staff development, Workshops
Use for: Conference proceedings, Proceedings, Seminars

Congenital disorders [SCOPE NOTE: Any disorder present at birth; may be hereditary or acquired during development in the uterus; see also causes of congenital disorders listed under "Narrower terms"]
Narrower terms: Cerebral palsy, Cleft palate, Down syndrome, Scoliosis, Spina bifida
Broader Terms: Disabilities
Related Terms: Brain damage, Rubella
Use for: Birth defects

Consulting [SCOPE NOTE: Providing professional services to an agency's clients or staff, either upon request or on the basis of a prearranged schedule; consultants are not members of the staff of the agency; includes consultants]
Related Terms: Management, Manpower, Personnel, Private sector rehabilitation

Consumer groups
Use: Advocacy, Consumers

Consumers [SCOPE NOTE: Includes disabled individuals and families who are users or recipients of services, products, etc.]
Related Terms: Advocacy, Clients, Independent living
Use for: Consumer groups

Continuing education [SCOPE NOTE: Includes educational programs designed to update the knowledge and skills, particularly professional skills; includes continuing education credit in a formal setting such as a university]
Broader Terms: Education
Related Terms: Adult education, Counselor education, Professional occupations, Professional training, Staff development, Training, Workshops

Contract procurement [SCOPE NOTE: Process of seeking and acquiring an agreement between an agency and a person, corporation, partnership, or agency to provide products or services; includes preparation of bids, product research or development, or other contracting procedures]
Related Terms: Accounting, Budget, Contracts

Contracts [SCOPE NOTE: Agreements between two or more parties as established by law]
Broader Terms: Funding
Related Terms: Contract procurement, Grants

Controls [SCOPE NOTE: Instruments for guiding, directing, or influencing the behavior of a system; methods or mechanisms by which a person operates a device]
Narrower terms: Wheelchair controls
Related Terms: Devices, Environmental control systems, Robotics
Use for: Interfaces, Switches

Use: Interagency cooperation, Service integration

Cooperative school programs
Use: Interagency cooperation, Work study programs

Coordination of services
Use: Interagency cooperation, Service integration

COPD [SCOPE NOTE: Decreased ability of the lungs to perform their function of ventilation; causes can be chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, or chronic asthma]
Broader Terms: Chronic illness, Respiratory disease
Related Terms: Emphysema
Use for: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Use: Adjustment

Use: Cardiac disorders

Correctional facilities [SCOPE NOTE: Includes jails and prisons]
Broader Terms: Facilities
Related Terms: Institutionalization, Juvenile delinquency, Law enforcement, Legal services, Public offenders
Use for: Prisons

Cost benefit analysis [SCOPE NOTE: Comparison, summary, analysis, study of costs and their relation to benefits to persons, clients, institutions, or facilities]
Broader Terms: Evaluation
Related Terms: Accounting, Costs, Employment costs, Employment economics, Management, Planning
Use for: Rehabilitation costs

Cost control strategies [SCOPE NOTE: As applied to the costs of programs, incentives,etc.; CIRRIE term added April 2000]
Related Terms: Costs, Employment costs, Employment economics, Management, Planning

Costs [SCOPE NOTE: Amounts paid or required in payment for purchases of services or goods; includes cost data, cost effectiveness, and cost sharing]
Narrower terms: Employment costs
Related Terms: Accounting, Budget, Cost benefit analysis, Cost control strategies, Economics, Life care planning, Managed care, Management, Planning
Use for: Finance, Rehabilitation costs, Reimbursement

Counseling [SCOPE NOTE: Professional guidance of the individual by utilizing psychological methods, especially in collecting case history data, using various techniques of the personal interview, and testing interests and aptitudes]
Narrower terms: Group counseling, Peer counseling
Broader Terms: Client counselor relations
Related Terms: Caseload management, Clinical psychology, Closure, Counseling effectiveness, Counseling psychology, Counseling techniques, Counselors, Interview techniques, Mental health, Psychology, Social work, Therapy
Use for: Guidance, Vocational counseling

Counseling effectiveness [SCOPE NOTE: Success of counseling or counseling techniques from counselor or client viewpoint]
Related Terms: Client counselor relations, Client satisfaction, Counseling, Counseling psychology, Counseling techniques, Counselors
Use for: Counselor characteristics, Counselor performance

Counseling psychology [SCOPE NOTE: Branch of psychology providing personal, vocational,and educational guidance]
Broader Terms: Psychology
Related Terms: Clinical psychology, Counseling, Counseling effectiveness

Counseling techniques [SCOPE NOTE: Includes specific methods and theories]
Narrower terms: Case studies, Goal setting, Group counseling, Peer counseling
Related Terms: Accountability, Counseling, Counseling effectiveness, Counselors, Evaluation techniques, Interview techniques, Teamwork
Use for: Counseling theory

Counseling theory
Use: Counseling techniques

Counselor attitudes [SCOPE NOTE: Attitudes of counselors toward persons with disabilities, counseling, or counseling work load]
Broader Terms: Attitudes
Related Terms: Attitudinal barriers, Counselors

Counselor characteristics
Use: Counseling effectiveness

Counselor education [SCOPE NOTE: Formal education in a university setting for counselors; work toward a degree]
Broader Terms: Education, Professional education
Related Terms: Continuing education, Professional occupations, Professional training

Counselor employment [SCOPE NOTE: Employment for counselors]
Broader Terms: Employment
Related Terms: Job satisfaction, Professional occupations

Counselor evaluation [SCOPE NOTE: Assessment of counselors by peers, employers, or educators]
Broader Terms: Evaluation
Use for: Counselor performance, Performance evaluation

Counselor performance
Use: Counseling effectiveness, Counselor evaluation

Counselors [SCOPE NOTE: Individuals who provide professional guidance based on knowledge of human behavior and use of special interviewing skills to identify and achieve their goals; individuals who help people with disabilities to understand their problems, potentials, limitations, so that realistic rehabilitation objectives can be mutually identified and available resources can be used to obtain them]
Broader Terms: Client counselor relations, Personnel, Professionals
Related Terms: Certification, Counseling, Counseling effectiveness, Counseling techniques, Counselor attitudes, Health personnel, Medical personnel
Use for: Rehabilitation counselors

Court cases [SCOPE NOTE: Use when document refers to or discusses a court case or decision]
Related Terms: Legal concerns, Legislation, Testimony
Use for: Litigation

Crime prevention [SCOPE NOTE: Includes preventing persons with disabilities from being criminally assaulted or taken advantage of because of their physical or mental limitations]
Related Terms: Juvenile delinquency, Law enforcement, Public offenders, Safety

Criminal justice
Use: Law enforcement

Use: Public offenders

Crisis intervention
Use: Intervention

Use: Mobility aids

Cultural diversity [SCOPE NOTE: Differences in attitudes, customs, etc., caused by cultural influences; CIRRIE term added April 2000]
Broader Terms: Diversity
Related Terms: Ethnic groups, Foreign born
Use for: Cultural sensitivity

Cultural sensitivity
Use: Cultural diversity

Culturally disadvantaged
Use: Poverty

Cumulative stress disorders
Use: Repetitive strain injuries

Curriculum [SCOPE NOTE: Courses offered by a school or a particular course of study; can be instructional or training-related; includes lesson plans]
Related Terms: Education, Instructional materials, Training materials

Cybernetics [SCOPE NOTE: Science of communication and control in biological, electronic, and mechanical systems; includes analysis of feedback mechanisms which serve to govern or modify the actions of various systems]
Related Terms: Bioengineering, Feedback, Robotics

Cystic fibrosis
Related Terms: Genetics